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任務頻次對高中英語寫作教學的影響研究

  • 發布日期:2018-09-17
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本文是一篇碩士英語論文,英語論文的寫作,主要用于參加國際學術研討會,促進中外學術文化交流;在國際學術刊物上發表,在國際上共享科研成果,英語論文也是達到學術交流的目的;另外英語論文還包括英語相關專業人員必要地用英語撰寫學術報告或畢業論文等等。(以上內容來自百度百科)今天為大家推薦一篇碩士英語論文,供大家參考。
 
Chapter 1 Introduction
 
English writing is an important form of language production. How to improvestudents’ writing ability is a difficult point in English teaching in senior high school.The study tries to explore the effects of the application of task frequency in Englishwriting in senior high school and the changes of students’ attitudes towards Englishwriting after the experiment. This chapter presents the background of the presentstudy, the significance of the present study and the overall structure of the thesis.
 
1.1 Background of the Present Study
As one of the four basic skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing inEnglish teaching and learning, writing plays an important role in English teaching andlearning. As for the students in senior high school, they should have the ability toexpress themselves in written English. According to the English Curriculum Standardfor Senior High Schools issued by China Ministry of Education, the basic writingrequirements for senior high school students can be summarized as follows: (1)Students should be able to express their personal opinions on general topics andcompose English comments on these topics from their own viewpoints (2) Studentscan write a topic-assigned composition within 100 to 120 words in English, which iscomplete in content, sound in logic, correct in grammar and accurate in language.However, in senior high school,the results of teaching of English writing andstudents’ writing proficiency are still far from being satisfying. The reasons can be described from the following two aspects.On one hand, most English teachers spend limited time in English writingteaching in class. Writing is a more challenging skill than the other three languageskills: reading, listening and speaking, because writing is a more complex cognitiveactivity. When completing a writing task, students have to master and control differentvariables at the same time, such as the contents, sentence structures, grammar andvocabulary. It is hard and even frustrating for teachers to improve the students’writing proficiency in a short run. Consequently, in order to help the students get highmarks in English exams in a short time, many teachers and students may just focus onthe teaching and learning of vocabulary, reading comprehension and grammar.
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1.2 Purpose of the Study
As an important concept of behaviorism ,task frequency plays an important rolein second language acquisition. The positive effects of task frequency on teaching ofEnglish vocabulary, listening and speaking are obvious which can be found in somany empirical studies. However, related studies about the effects of task frequencyon English writing teaching are rare.The aim of the study lies in exploring the effects of task frequency on Englishlearning and teaching comprehensively. Besides exploring the effects of taskfrequency on English writing teaching in senior high school can help the teachers andstudents to find an effective way to improve the students writing ability.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
This chapter reviews the theories about task frequency. The literature reviewstarts from the explanation of task frequency and moves to the relationship betweenEnglish writing and task frequency. The function of task frequency and the relatedtheories are introduced in this part as well. The last part of this chapter is about theprevious studies on task frequency both at home and abroad.
 
2.1 Task Frequency
Task frequency is an essential concept of behaviorism (Ellis, 2002). In the lastdecade, the effect of task frequency in learning has been introduced to the secondlanguage acquisition. Many researchers such as Larsen-Freeman (1976) and Ellis(2002) emphasized the significance of task frequency in language learning. Theexplanation and the function of task frequency are introduced in the following parts.The task frequency can be explained as the repetitive experience of conductingthe same learning task (Harrington & Dennis, 2002). Bygate and Samuda defined taskfrequency as “repetition of the same or slightly altered tasks either the whole task orparts of the task” (Samuda, 2005, p.43). Bygate further identified task frequency as“the task experienced by students when they find themselves repeatedly in highlysimilar communication situations” (Bygate, 2001, p.29).Some scholars such as Gass (2002) and Larsen (2002) proposed that taskfrequency included two types, input task frequency and output task frequency. Theyacknowledged that input task frequency and output task frequency are equallyimportant. The input task frequency refers to the frequency of language input task,such as the frequency of the task which should immerse into the second languageenvironment and the frequency of the input task which is about comprehensivelanguage materials (Gass, 2002). The output task frequency refers to the frequency oflanguage production, such as the frequency of speaking task and writing task (Gass,2002).
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2.2 Related Theories
There are a lot of linguists who have affirmed the importance of task frequencyin second language acquisition and they proposed different explanations for the effects of task frequency from different aspects.This part introduces the related theories of task frequency. The task frequency isgrounded on task-repetition theory, cognitive theory and the output hypothesis.Some foreign scholars hold the view that repeating a language learning task is aneffective method to improve students’ language skills. According to Larsen-Freeman(2009), carrying out a learning task more than once is what drives learning. When itcomes to language learning, it is essential to revise the same, or similar, aspects oflanguage production again and again. In language learning, the significance of task-repetition theory can be summarized from two aspects. First, language production inthe next repetition of the learning task is different from the previous one and the onethat follows (Larsen-Freeman, 2011). When the same learning task is repeatedfrequently, some changes and improvements in the language production occur at amicro level (Skehan, 1998). Second, every time of repetition on the same task can beregarded as the preparation and rehearsal for the next practice (Skehan, 1998). Whenthe same task is repeated, students perform the task in different ways on subsequentoccasions, because “the present growth level depends on the previous growth levelplus the interaction between that level and the linguistic resources available at thatpoint” (Skehan, 1998). Bygate (1999) approved of Skehan’s viewpoint and furtherexplained the value of task-repetition theory in second language learning. 
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Chapter 3 Methodology .....22
3.1 Research Questions............ 22
3.2 Subjects ........ 23
3.3 Instruments.............. 23
3.3.1 Pre-Test ......... 23
3.3.2 Post-test......... 24
3.3.3 Questionnaire ........... 24
3.3.4 Interview ....... 25
3.4 Experimental Procedure..... 26
3.5 Data Collection and Analysis........ 29
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions......... 32
4.1 Results.......... 32
4.1.1 Results of the Tests ............. 32
4.1.2 Results of the Questionnaires......... 40
4.1.3 Results of the Interview ...... 45
4.2 Discussions ............. 46
Chapter 5 Conclusion ........ 51
5.1 Major Findings........ 51
5.2 Implications of the Study .............. 52
5.3 Limitations of the Study..... 53
5.4 Suggestions for Further Researches......... 54
 
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions
 
This chapter presents the results of the experiment and provides the discussionon the effects of task frequency on English writing in senior high school and thechanges of the students’ attitudes towards English writing after the experiment.
 
4.1 Results
The data were collected from tests, the questionnaires and the interview. Theresults are shown in the following tables.The results of the pre-test are illustrated from two aspects. Table 4.1 is theresults of the writing scores which were valued according to the scoring criterion ofCollege Entrance Examination shown. Table 4.2 is the results of the writing qualitieswhich were measured from the aspects of accuracy, fluency and complexity .In experimental class, the mean score of the writings is 17.93 and the meanscore of the writings in the control class is 18.23. The Std. Deviation of the twoclasses are 1.760 and 1.928, which indicates that the distribution of the scores in theexperimental class are more concentrated than the control class. The value of Sig is0.554 which is more than 0.05. The statistics in the table 4.1 convey that there is nosignificant difference in writing proficiency between the two classes.
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Conclusion
 
This chapter will present the major findings of the study and some implicationsof the study. Some meaningful suggestions for further relevant researches will be alsointroduced in this chapter.The research has answered two research questions about the effects of taskfrequency on English writing and the changes of the students’ attitudes towardsEnglish writing. According to the results of the experiment, there are three majorfindings.Firstly, task frequency can facilitates learners’ English writing learning. Fromthe results of the tests, it is clear that the students in the experiment class get higherscores in their writings than the students in the control class. The students in theexperimental class make a greater improvement in writing quality from fluency,accuracy and complexity than those in the control class. It is suggested that byapplying the task frequency into English writing teaching, students’ writing abilityand the writing quality in accuracy, fluency and complexity have been improved a lot.Secondly, for one writing task on a topic, the most appropriate frequency inEnglish writing is three times of repetitions. By analyzing the results of the writingtasks in the experiment, students’ writing quality in accuracy, fluency and complexitygets an optimal improvement in the third writing on the same topic. There is noevident improvement in writing quality in the fourth or following writings on thesame writing topic. In addition, the results of the questionnaire and the interviewindicate that students may feel tired of writing if the writing task is repeated morethan three times. It means that the most appropriate task frequency is three times ofrepetitions on the same writing topic in this study.
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